2012项目成果简介之三:中国和克罗地亚高校课堂内外师生互动现状比较研究

发稿时间:2013-11-18浏览次数:636

严立东  吴素梅

  师生互动既是一种教育行为,也是一种教育思想。从古至今,它一直吸引着教育者的不断探索和实践。但是综观国内有关研究,一是研究视角主要聚焦于课堂教学,二是缺乏必要的数据和比较研究。而很显然,课堂教学不等同于所有教育,而没有数据和比较,则难以判断并清晰展现中国高校目前师生互动现状到底如何。

  本研究主要以上海对外贸易学院和克罗地亚萨格勒布大学在校本科生为调查对象,对两校课堂内外师生互动频率、互动内容、方式、强度、影响因素做了较为全面的调研。通过问卷调查,对两校师生互动现状有了较为全面的了解,通过与学生座谈和一对一的质性访谈,并综合两国高等教育现状等背景,对数据背后的原因进行了挖掘,分析和解读。

  从目前数据分析和访谈结果看,本研究初步结论如下:

  一、两校学生对课堂内和课堂外的师生互动均有强烈的需求和认同。

  二、两校目前课堂内外师生互动现状,不管是互动的频度、内容的广度强度和深度,一定程度上均达不到学生的需求和期望,距离学生的要求尚有一定距离。

  三、与美国NSSE调查数据相比,两校课堂内外的师生互动都有待于进一步提高与加强。

  四、相对来说,上海对外贸易学院学生对课堂外和任课教师互动的需求高于萨格勒布大学。

  五、两校学生均认为教师教书育人的职责高于学术研究,均认为大学教师最应该关心的问题一是学生的成长和收获,二是课堂教学,三是学术研究,四是职称评定。这一需求取向,与高校教师的需求取向正好相反。

  六、萨格勒布大学课堂内师生互动综合得分高于上海对外贸易学院。

   萨格勒布大学课堂上做口头和书面报告(presentation)的比例远远高于上海对外贸易学院;课堂上就所讲内容积极提问比例高于上海对外贸易学院;课堂上被提问、课堂上师生就某一问题讨论稍高于上海对外贸易学院;只有在课堂上就某一问题表达自己的观点或意见的得分低于上海对外贸易学院。

  七、萨格勒布大学和上海对外贸易学院课堂外师生互动互有高低,呈现出不同的特点。综合而言,在任课教师分享自己的经验,关心学生就业和职业规划;课外和任课老师讨论就业、职业规划;课外和任课老师讨论感兴趣的活动或其他生活话题;课外和任课老师讨论人生价值观、理想信念等问题;任课教师指导学生参与学校内外文体社会实践活动;和任课老师讨论分数6个选项上,萨格勒布大学得分高于上海对外贸易学院。在任课教师关心学生学业、情感、情绪问题;学习表现及时得到老师反馈;任课老师指导和参加班级活动3个选项上上海对外贸易学院得分高于萨格勒布大学。

  八、政策、制度、文化传统和观念、课堂规模、教学设施、师生在社会中所处不同角色等,均对师生互动具有一定的影响。

  九、要从思想上重视,从教学模式上改进,从管理制度上改革,形成有利于师生互动的机制,最终促进人才培养质量的提高。

 

 

A Comparative Study on Student-Faculty Interaction in China and Croatia

YAN LIDONG   WU SUMEI

 

 Student-faculty interaction is not only a kind of educational idea, but also a kind of educational practices. Many educators devoted their life time to doing research on this issue. Based on the questionnaires and interviews with undergraduate students on student-faculty interaction in SUIBE and UNIZG, this paper shows the current situation of student-faculty interaction and similarities and differences between two universities. By surveying the frequency of interaction, contents of interaction, ways of interaction, degree of satisfaction, effect factors etc, by analyzing the results from interviews with students and teachers, the related documents, the paper draws some conclusion and then gives some suggestions about how to improve the level and degree of student-faculty interaction.   Survey tool was designed by research team referencing the questionnaire of the National Survey of Student Engagement in China(NSSE-China).

 The Preliminary conclusions are as follow:

  A) Students of two universities have strong identity and requirement of student-faculty interaction, and they both think the improvement of student-faculty interaction in and out of class is greatly beneficial to their learning process and outcomes and their growing up. But the current situation of student-faculty can't meet the need and expectation of students. It is still far from the requirements of students on the frequency, level and degree of student-faculty. How to take effective measures to improve the quality and frequency of student-faculty interaction and how to motivate more and more teachers to care for student learning, growing and development are challenges facing both universities.

 B) Though student-faculty interaction in class is much better than out of class, there is a phenomenon that needs our close attention. The phenomenon is there are few students who always ask questions about what teacher teach and what they are learning. So how to motivate students to actively ask questions so that their problem consciousness and spirit of skepticism can be cultivated and developed is a great problem which two universities are facing.

 Compared with UNIZG, SUIBE should further promote the reform of teaching methods or teaching model greatly.

 C) Another problem with which we are dissatisfied is there is low degree of participation in student learning and growing out of class, especially in some aspects like teachers taking part in all kinds of activities and doing research work with students, caring for students' employment and career planning etc.

 By comparison, we can learn that the score in social interaction of SUIBE is lower than that of UNIZG. Survey data show there are some students who never got help from teachers on employment, career planning, etc.

 D) Compared with American university, the student-faculty in and out class in two universities should be further improved and strengthened. Especially in indictors that teachers and students discuss question actively, both teachers and students take part in activities after class, teachers and students do research work together, teachers give students feedback promptly on their performance and teachers care for students' career planning etc.

 Suggestions are as follow:

 A) University should attach great importance to the requirement of students on student-faculty interaction, and should know very well about role of student-faculty interaction in the learning and development of students. Based on this knowledge and understanding, university should take measures to improve the level and degree of student-faculty interaction.

 B) University must improve the reform of teaching model, develop scholarship of teaching, construct the student-centered education management system.

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